On September 8, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) released a new synthesis report designed to assist governments in reaching a decision on the first global stocktake during COP28, which will be convened from 30 November to 12 December 2023 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE).
“Technical dialogue of the first global stocktake”, an assessment of the world’s progress in global warming countermeasures, emphasizes that the world is not on a path to achieve the long-term goals set in the Paris Agreement to limit the global temperature increase, and warns that countries need to do more on all fronts.
Technical dialogue of the first global stocktake
This synthesis report provides a comprehensive overview of discussions held and inputs received during the technical dialogue of the first global stocktake in 2022 and 2023. It identifies key areas for further action to bridge gaps and address challenges and barriers in the implementation of the Paris Agreement, and summarizes 17 findings based on the best scientific information.
The global stocktake (GST) is an assessment of global efforts to address climate change, to be conducted every five years. This process consists of the following steps, carried out over a period of two years: (1) information gathering and preparation, (2) technical assessment of progress, and (3) review of deliverables. This report summarizes the results of the first two steps, and based on this report, consideration and adoption of deliverables (political messages) will be held at COP28 in high-level events with ministerial participation. Suggestions from this GST will be communicated to countries in order for them to update their nationally determined contributions (NDCs).
The report emphasizes that the world is not on a pathway to implementing effective climate change measures, and requests more ambition as a result of the following 17 key findings.
17 Key Findings of the Report
- Since its adoption, the Paris Agreement has driven near-universal climate action by setting goals and sending signals to the world regarding the urgency of responding to the climate crisis. While action is proceeding, much more is needed now on all fronts.
- To strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, governments need to support systems transformations that mainstream climate resilience and low GHG emissions development. Credible, accountable and transparent actions by non-Party stakeholders are needed to strengthen efforts for systems transformations.
- Systems transformations open up many opportunities, but rapid change can be disruptive. A focus on inclusion and equity can increase ambition in climate action and support.
- Global emissions are not in line with modeled global mitigation pathways consistent with the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement, and there is a rapidly narrowing window to raise ambition and implement existing commitments in order to limit warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.
- Much more ambition in action and support is needed in implementing domestic mitigation measures and setting more ambitious targets in NDCs to realize existing and emerging opportunities across contexts, in order to reduce global GHG emissions by 43 per cent by 2030 and further by 60 per cent by 2035 compared with 2019 levels and reach net zero CO2 emissions by 2050 globally.
- Achieving net zero CO2 and GHG emissions requires systems transformations across all sectors and contexts, including scaling up renewable energy while phasing out all unabated fossil fuels, ending deforestation, reducing non-CO2 emissions and implementing both supply- and demand-side measures.
- Just transitions can support more robust and equitable mitigation outcomes, with tailored approaches addressing different contexts.
- Economic diversification is a key strategy to address the impacts of response measures, with various options that can be applied in different contexts.
- As climate change threatens all countries, communities and people around the world, increased adaptation action as well as enhanced efforts to avert, minimize and address loss and damage are urgently needed to reduce and respond to increasing impacts, particularly for those who are least prepared for change and least able to recover from disasters.
- Collectively, there is increasing ambition in plans and commitments for adaptation action and support, but most observed adaptation efforts are fragmented, incremental, sector-specific and unequally distributed across regions.
- When adaptation is informed and driven by local contexts, populations and priorities, both the adequacy and the effectiveness of adaptation action and support are enhanced, and this can also promote transformational adaptation.
- Averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damage requires urgent action across climate and development policies to manage risks comprehensively and provide support to impacted communities.
- Support for adaptation and funding arrangements for averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damage need to be rapidly scaled up from expanded and innovative sources, and financial flows need to be made consistent with climate-resilient development to meet urgent and increasing needs.
- Scaled-up mobilization of support for climate action in developing countries entails strategically deploying international public finance, which remains a prime enabler for action, and continuing to enhance effectiveness, including access, ownership and impacts.
- Making financial flows – international and domestic, public and private – consistent with a pathway towards low GHG emissions and climate-resilient development entails creating opportunities to unlock trillions of dollars and shift investments to climate action across scales.
- Existing cleaner technologies need to be rapidly deployed, together with accelerated innovation, development and transfer of new technologies, to support the needs of developing countries.
- Capacity-building is foundational to achieving broad-ranging and sustained climate action and requires effective country-led and needs-based cooperation to ensure capacities are enhanced and retained over time at all levels.
Necessary to further strengthen emission reduction targets
The report discusses the lack of progress regarding global emission reductions, and points out that it is necessary to significantly increase emission reduction targets and strengthen implementation of mitigation methods to meet those targets. As summarized by the title of the United Nations’ UN News article (“Window to reach climate goals ‘rapidly closing’, UN report warns”), the remaining time for action is running out. There is an urgent need to rethink the way society has focused on economic development, and to take substantial actions to prevent a worsening climate crisis as a united world.
We hope that policymakers take this report’s key findings seriously and respond appropriately to them with meaningful commitments and implementation of climate change measures.
UN News: Window to reach climate goals ‘rapidly closing’, UN report warns (Link)
Technical dialogue of the first global stocktake. Synthesis report by the co-facilitators on the technical dialogue (Link)
Technical dialogue of the first global stocktake Synthesis report by the co-facilitators on the technical dialogue (PDF)
Written/Published by: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Published: September 8, 2023